Contents

Abbreviations and Definitions 

AfB1: Aflatoxin B1 : Potent carcinogen produced in moldy food by Aspergillus species.

BAK:  BAK1 is a pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 protein having four Bcl-2 homology (BH) domains: BH 1-4.

Bax: Apoptosis regulator BAX, also known as “bcl-2-like protein 4", is

bcl-2:This name stands for B cell lymphoma. Bcl-2 proteins incite either anti- or pro-apoptosis. BID: The BH3 Interacting-domain Death agonist gene is a pro-apoptotic member of the Bcl-2 protein family and is upregulated by the tulmor suppressor p53.

Caspase: cysteine-aspartic protease, or cysteine-dependent aspartate-directed protease.

Cytokine: Cell signalling or literally Cell Movement 

DIABLO: (Direct IAP Binding protein with Low pI)  Binds caspase inhibitors and thus facilitates apoptosis

DR4, DR5 etc.: Death Domain receptors that are required for the action of TRAIL & FasL.

E-Ac:  Vitamin E acetate  (d-alpha tocopheryl-acetate)

E-Su:  Vitamin E succinate  (d-alpha tocopoheryl-succinate)

Hippo/Yap pathway: Cell proliferation path signaling that controls apoptosis, originally seen in the Drosophila melanogaster fruit fly. The Hippo proteins phosphorylate the YAP factors inhibiting them and preventing out of control cell growth and proliferation.

i.u.:  International units

IAP: Inhibitor of Apoptosis Proteins

Kinases:  Enzymes that phosphorylate a target substrate

Mst 1 and Mst2:  Serine/threonine protein kinases, the mammalian homologs of the Hippo kinase from Drosophila controlling the cell proliferation, differentiation etc.

NF-κβ: Nuclear Factor kappa beta, an apoptosis inhibitor.  In normal cells it acts as modulator of cell growth and death, but in cancer cells it prevents apoptosis and therby promotes cancer growth. 

p53: tumor suppressor protein that when activated is a transcription factor that regulates many downstream target genes, including BID.  However, p53 also has a transcription-independent role in apoptosis,   in particular, promoting Bax activation and the insertion of Bax into the mitochondrial membrane.

Smac: Second Mitochondria-derived Activator of Caspases. Also called DIABLO

TNF-α: Tumor necrosis factor alpha is a cytokine that activates NF-kβ.  It causes cell death, but it is not specific to cancer cells and causes inflamation and organ toxicity.

TRAILTumor necrosis factor Related-Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand. It targets only cancer cells.

YAPYes Associated Protein.  Up regulation of the YAP signal causes organ hypertrophy and eventual tumor development.